Electrical Switching of Infrared Light Using Graphene Integration with Plasmonic Fano Resonant Metasurfaces

Year: 2015

Authors: Dabidian N., Kholmanov I., Khanikaev A. B., Tatar K., Trendafilov S., Mousavi S. H., Magnuson C., Ruoff R. S., Shvets G.

Autors Affiliation: Departments of Physics and Center for Nano and Molecular Science and Technology and Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science Program, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, United States;
Department of Physics, Queens College of The City University of New York, Queens, New York 11367, United States, The Graduate Center of The City University of New York, New York, New York 10016, United States;
CNR-INO, Sensor Lab, The University of Brescia, via Branze 45, 25123, Brescia, Italy

Abstract: Graphene has emerged as a promising optoelectronic material because its optical properties can be rapidly and dramatically changed using electric gating Graphene’s weak optical response especially in the infrared part of the spectrum, remains the key challenge to developing practical graphene-based optical devices such as modulators, infrared detectors, and tunable reflect-arrays Here it is experimentally and theoretically demonstrated that a plasmonic metasurface with two Fano resonances can dramatically enhance the interaction of infrared light with single layer graphene: Graphene’s plasmonic response in the Pauli blocking regime is shown to cause strong spectral shifts of the Fano resonances without inducing additional nonradiative losses. It is shown that such electrically controllable spectral shift, combined with the narrow spectral width of the metasurface’s Fano resonances, enables reflectivity modulation by nearly an order of magnitude. We also demonstrate that metasurface-based enhancement of the interaction between graphene and infrared light can be utilized to extract one of the key optical parameters of graphene: the free carrier scattering rate. Numerical simulations demonstrate the,possibility of strong active modulation of the phase of the reflected light while keeping the reflectivity nearly constant, thereby paving the way to tunable infrared lenses and beam steering devices based on electrically controlled graphene integrated with resonant metasurfaces.

Journal/Review: ACS PHOTONICS

Volume: 2 (2)      Pages from: 216  to: 227

More Information: This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Award N00014-13-1-0837 and by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Award DMR 1120923. I.K., C.M., and R.S.R. would like to acknowledge the support from a Tokyo Electron Ltd. (TEL)-customized Semiconductor Research Corporation Award (2009-OJ-1873) and the Office of Naval Research (Grant N00014-10-1-0254). Babak Fallahazad, Sommayeh Rahimi, and Nima Asoudegi are acknowledged for their advice on the fabrication procedures.
KeyWords: optical switching; Fano resonance metasurface; graphene; modulation depth;
DOI: 10.1021/ph5003279

Citations: 203
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