Monitoring Fish Freshness in Real Time under Realistic Conditions through a Single Metal Oxide Gas Sensor

Year: 2022

Authors: Zambotti G., Capuano R., Pasqualetti V., Soprani M., Gobbi E., Di Natale C., Ponzoni A.

Autors Affiliation: -Unit of Brescia, National Institute of Optics (CNR-INO), National Research Council, Via Branze 45, 25123 Brescia, Italy
-Unit of Lecco, National Institute of Optics (CNR-INO), National Research Council, Via Previati 1/E, 23900 Lecco, Italy
-Department of Information Engineering, University of Brescia, Via Branze 38, 25123 Brescia, Italy
-Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome, Italy
-Agri-Food and Environmental Microbiology Platform (PiMiAA), Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, Viale Europa 11, 25123 Brescia, Italy

Abstract: The realization of an unobtrusive and effective technology able to track fish freshness in real time and inform on its edibility is highly demanded, but still unachieved. In the present paper, we address this issue through a single metal oxide gas sensor working in temperature modulation mode. The system can work without an external reference air source, which is an appealing feature for its possible integration in domestic refrigerators. Tests were carried out using fresh sea bream fillets as case study and working both inside the refrigerator and at room temperature. Parallel gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and microbiological characterization indicated the marked dependence of both the microbiological condition and the gas-phase composition from the individual sample and from the storage temperature. Despite such a large variability, which may be expected in real applications, the proposed system provided similar responses whenever the total bacterial population approached and exceeded the edibility threshold of 10^7 CFU/g.

Journal/Review: SENSORS

Volume: 22 (15)      Pages from: 5888-1  to: 5888-15

More Information: G.Z., M.S. and A.P. gratefully acknowledge Lombardia Region and Fondazione Cariplo for the financial support through the project EMPATIA@LECCO and Lombardia Region and CNR for the financial support through the project FHfFC.
KeyWords: gas sensor; fish; gas chromatography–mass spectrometry; microbiological count; metal oxide; temperature modulation
DOI: 10.3390/s22155888