Vectorial polaritons in the quantum motion of a levitated nanosphere

Year: 2021

Authors: Ranfagni A., Vezio P., Calamai M., Chowdhury A., Marino F., Marin F.

Autors Affiliation: European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS), Sesto Fiorentino, Italy.
INFN, Sezione di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino, Italy. CNR-INO, Firenze, Italy.
Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino, Italy.

Abstract: The strong coupling between photons and bosonic excitations
in matter produces hybrid quasiparticle states known as
polaritons. Their signature is the avoided crossing between the eigenfrequencies of the coupled system illustrated by the Jaynes–Cummings Hamiltonian. It has been observed in quantum electrodynamics experiments based on atoms, ions,
excitons, spin ensembles and superconducting qubits.
In cavity optomechanics, polariton modes originate from
the quantum-coherent coupling of a macroscopic mechanical
vibration to the cavity radiation field. Here we investigate
polaritonic modes in the motion of an optically levitated
nanosphere in the quantum-coherent coupling regime. The
particle is trapped in a high vacuum by an optical tweezer and strongly coupled to a single cavity mode by coherent scattering of the tweezer photons. The two-dimensional motion and optical cavity mode define an optomechanical system with three degrees of freedom. In the strong-coupling regime,we observe hybrid light–mechanical states with a vectorial nature. Our results pave the way towards protocols for quantum information transfer between photonic and phononic components and represent a step towards the demonstration of optomechanical entangled states at room temperature.

Journal/Review: NATURE PHYSICS

Volume: 17      Pages from: 1120  to: 1124

More Information: F. Marin and P.V. thank N. Kiesel, U. Delic and M. Aspelmeyer for useful discussions and their kind hospitality. Research performed within the Project QuaSeRT funded by the QuantERA ERA-NET Cofund in Quantum Technologies implemented within the European Union´s Horizon 2020 Programme.
KeyWords: Quantum optomechanics, levitated nanoparticles, quantum-coherent strong coupling, optical cavity, nanoparticle, photon, field, atom, dot
DOI: 10.1038/s41567-021-01307-y

Citations: 19
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