Discrete Bright Solitons in Bose-Einstein Condensates and Dimensional Reduction in Quantum Field Theory

Year: 2015

Authors: Salasnich L.

Autors Affiliation: Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron Galileo Galilei, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy;‎ Univ Padua, CNISM, I-35131 Padua, Italy;‎ CNR, INO, Sez Sesto Fiorentino, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy

Abstract: We first review the derivation of an effective one-dimensional (1D) discrete nonpolynomial Schrodinger equation from the continuous 3D Gross-Pitaevskii equation with transverse harmonic confinement and axial periodic potential. Then we study the bright solitons obtained from this discrete nonpolynomial equation showing that they give rise to the collapse of the condensate above a critical attractive strength. We also investigate the dimensional reduction of a bosonic quantum field theory, deriving an effective 1D nonpolynomial Heisenberg equation from the 3D Heisenberg equation of the continuous bosonic field operator under the action of transverse harmonic confinement. Moreover, by taking into account the presence of an axial periodic potential we find a generalized Bose-Hubbard model which reduces to the familiar 1D Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian only if a strong inequality is satisfied. Remarkably, in the absence of axial periodic potential our 1D nonpolynomial Heisenberg equation gives the generalized Lieb-Liniger theory we obtained some years ago.

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