Micro-Raman and SER spectroscopy to unfold Lefranc’s early organic pigment formulations

Year: 2016

Authors: Gabrieli F., Doherty B., Miliani C., Degano I., Modugno F., Uldank D., Kunzelman D., Buzzegoli E., Patti M., Rosi F.

Autors Affiliation: CNR, ISTM, Via Elce Sotto 8, Perugia, Italy;‎ Univ Pisa, Dipartimento Chim & Chim Ind, Via Moruzzi 3, Pisa, Italy; Opificio Pietre Dure Firenze, Via Alfani 78, Florence, Italy;‎ CNR, INO, Largo Enrico Fermi 6, Florence, Italy; Univ Pisa, Dipartimento Civilta & Forme Sapere, Via Paoli 15, Pisa, Italy

Abstract: The introduction of synthetic dyes and pigments into commerce in the late 19th century was a stimulating time for experimental scientists in their laboratory formulations and for artists in their usage. Nowadays, the period of pioneering syntheses and employment of synthetic organic colouring materials is highly intriguing for scientific research and for conservation purposes in heritage science. In this work, a combination of spectroscopic and chromatographic methods has permitted the elucidation of the chemical composition of 16 early synthetic organic pigment powders from the Lefranc experimental laboratory collection dating 1890-1914. It can be hypothesized that the most successful of these formulations could have been finalized in paint tubes and released onto the market, meaning that they may even be found in artworks from the same period. Specifically, information from this crucial period of transition from the exclusive use of natural dyes/colourants (such as ne and plant and insect anthraquinones) to the introduction of their synthetic counterparts (such as synthetic alizarin and purpurin, and acid stable cochineal, together with monoazo and diazo pigments) is confirmed through Raman/surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. By means of X-ray fluorescence and mid-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, a combination of traditional and modern inorganic substrates has been identified (alum, kaolin, barium sulfate and metallic salts), while Raman has provided additional data regarding the possible complexation of these pigments in the form of lakes. Copyright (C) 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Volume: 47 (12)      Pages from: 1505  to: 1513

More Information: Special isue Conference: 8th International Congress on the Application of Raman Spectroscopy in Art and Archeology (RAA)
Location: Wroclaw, POLAND
Date: SEP 01-05, 2015
KeyWords: early synthetic pigments; synthetic pigment mixtures; SERS; HPLC-DAD; HPLC-MS
DOI: 10.1002/jrs.5052

Citations: 11
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